Performance Design Principles - Deployment

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- J.D. Meier, Srinath Vasireddy, Ashish Babbar, Rico Mariani, and Alex Mackman

Consider Your Deployment Architecture

Nondistributed and distributed architectures are both suitable for .NET applications. Both approaches have different pros and cons in terms of performance, scalability, ease of development, administration, and operations.

Nondistributed Architecture

With the nondistributed architecture, presentation, business, and data access code are logically separated but are physically located in a single Web server process on the Web server. This is shown in following Figure

Figure : Nondistributed application architecture: logical layers on a single physical tier


  • Nondistributed architecture is less complex than distributed architecture.
  • Nondistributed architecture has performance advantages gained through local calls.


  • With nondistributed architecture, it is difficult to share business logic with other applications.
  • With nondistributed architecture, server resources are shared across layers. This can be good or bad — layers may work well together and result in optimized usage because one of them is always busy. However, if one layer requires disproportionately more resources, you starve resources from another layer.

Distributed Architecture

With the distributed architecture, presentation logic communicates remotely to business logic located on a middle-tier application server as shown in following Figure.

Figure : Distributed architecture: logical layers on multiple physical tiers


  • Distributed architecture has the ability to scale out and load balance business logic independently.
  • Distributed architecture has separate server resources that are available for separate layers.
  • Distributed architecture is flexible.


  • Distributed architecture has additional serialization and network latency overheads due to remote calls.
  • Distributed architecture is potentially more complex and more expensive in terms of total cost of ownership.

Identify Constraints and Assumptions Early

Identify any constraints and assumptions early in the design phase to avoid surprises later. Involve members of the network and infrastructure teams to help with this process. Study any available network diagrams, in addition to your security policy and operation requirements.

Target environments are often rigid, and your application design needs to accommodate the imposed restrictions. Sometimes design tradeoffs are required because of considerations such as protocol restrictions, firewalls, and specific deployment topologies. Likewise, your design may rely on assumptions such as the amount of memory or CPU capacity or may not even consider them. Take maintainability into consideration. Ease of maintenance after deployment often affects the design of the application.

Evaluate Server Affinity

Affinity can have a positive or negative impact on performance and scalability. Server affinity occurs when all requests from a particular client must be handled by the same server. It is most often introduced by using locally updatable caches or in-process or local session state stores. If your design causes server affinity, scaling out at a later point forces you to re-engineer or develop complex synchronization solutions to synchronize data across multiple servers. If you need to scale out, consider affinity to resources that may limit your ability. If you do not need to support scaling out, consider the performance benefits that affinity to a resource may bring.

Use a Layered Design

A layered design is one that factors in presentation, business, and data access logic. A good layered design exhibits high degrees of cohesion by keeping frequently interacting components within a single layer, close to each other. A multilayered approach with separate presentation, business, and data access logic helps you build a more scalable and more maintainable application.

Stay in the Same Process

Avoid remote method calls and round trips where possible. Remote calls across physical boundaries (process and machine) are costly due to serialization and network latency.

You can host your application's business logic on your Web server along with the presentation layer or on a physically separate application server. You achieve optimum performance by locating your business logic on the Web server in your Web application process. If you avoid or exploit server affinity in your application design, this approach supports scaling up and scaling out. You can add more hardware to the existing servers or add more servers to the Web layer as shown in following Figure.

Figure : Scaling out Web servers in a Web farm

Note This deployment architecture still assumes logical layers: presentation, business, and data access. You should make logical layers a design goal, regardless of your physical deployment architecture.

Do Not Remote Application Logic Unless You Need To

Do not physically separate your business logic layer unless you need to and you have evaluated the tradeoffs. Remote logic can increase performance overhead. Performance overhead results from an increased number of round trips over the network with associated network latency and serialization costs.

However, you might need to physically separate your business layer, as in the following scenarios:

  • You might want to collocate business gateway servers with key partners.
  • You might need to add a Web front end to an existing set of business logic.
  • You might want to share your business logic among multiple client applications.
  • The security policy of your organization might prohibit you from installing business logic on your front-end Web servers.
  • You might want to offload the processing to a separate server because your business logic might be computationally intensive.

If you do need a remote application layer, use design patterns that help minimize the performance overhead.

Consider Whether You Need to Support Scale Out

Scaling up with additional processor power and increased memory can be a cost-effective solution, It also avoids introducing the additional management cost associated with scaling out and using Web farms and clustering technology. You should look at scale-up options first and conduct performance tests to see whether scaling up your solution meets your defined scalability criteria and supports the necessary number of concurrent users at an acceptable level of performance. You should have a scaling plan for your system that tracks its observed growth.

If scaling up your solution does not provide adequate scalability because you reach CPU, I/O, or memory thresholds, you must scale out and introduce additional servers. To ensure that your application can be scaled out successfully, consider the following practices in your design:

  • You need to be able to scale out your bottlenecks, wherever they are. If the bottlenecks are on a shared resource that cannot be scaled, you have a problem. However, having a class of servers that have affinity with one resource type could be beneficial, but they must then be independently scaled. For example, if you have a single SQL Serverâ„¢ that provides a directory, everyone uses it. In this case, when the server becomes a bottleneck, you can scale out and use multiple copies. Creating an affinity between the data in the directory and the SQL Servers that serve the data allows you to specialize those servers and does not cause scaling problems later, so in this case affinity is a good idea.
  • Define a loosely coupled and layered design. A loosely coupled, layered design with clean, remotable interfaces is more easily scaled out than tightly-coupled layers with "chatty" interactions. A layered design will have natural clutch points, making it ideal for scaling out at the layer boundaries. The trick is to find the right boundaries. For example, business logic may be more easily relocated to a load-balanced, middle-tier application server farm.

Consider Design Implications and Tradeoffs Up Front

You need to consider aspects of scalability that may vary by application layer, tier, or type of data. Know your tradeoffs up front and know where you have flexibility and where you do not. Scaling up and then out with Web or application servers may not be the best approach. For example, although you can have an 8-processor server in this role, economics would probably drive you to a set of smaller servers instead of a few big ones. On the other hand, scaling up and then out may be the right approach for your database servers, depending on the role of the data and how the data is used. Apart from technical and performance considerations, you also need to take into account operational and management implications and related total cost of ownership costs.

Use the following points to help evaluate your scaling strategy:

  • Stateless components. If you have stateless components (for example, a Web front end with no in-process state and no stateful business components), this aspect of your design supports scaling up and out. Typically, you optimize the price and performance within the boundaries of the other constraints you may have. For example, 2-processor Web or application servers may be optimal when you evaluate price and performance compared with 4-processor servers; that is, four 2-processor servers may be better than two 4-processor servers. You also need to consider other constraints, such as the maximum number of servers you can have behind a particular load-balancing infrastructure. In general, there are no design tradeoffs if you adhere to a stateless design. You optimize price, performance, and manageability.
  • Data. For data, decisions largely depend on the type of data:
    • Static, reference, and read-only data. For this type of data, you can easily have many replicas in the right places if this helps your performance and scalability. This has minimal impact on design and can be largely driven by optimization considerations. Consolidating several logically separate and independent databases on one database server may or may not be appropriate even if you can do it in terms of capacity. Spreading replicas closer to the consumers of that data may be an equally valid approach. However, be aware that whenever you replicate, you will have a loosely synchronized system.
    • Dynamic (often transient) data that is easily partitioned. This is data that is relevant to a particular user or session (and if subsequent requests can come to different Web or application servers, they all need to access it), but the data for user A is not related in any way to the data for user B. For example, shopping carts and session state both fall into this category. This data is slightly more complicated to handle than static, read-only data, but you can still optimize and distribute quite easily. This is because this type of data can be partitioned. There are no dependencies between the groups, down to the individual user level. The important aspect of this data is that you do not query it across partitions. For example, you ask for the contents of user A's shopping cart but do not ask to show all carts that contain a particular item.
    • Core data. This type of data is well maintained and protected. This is the main case where the "scale up, then out" approach usually applies. Generally, you do not want to hold this type of data in many places due to the complexity of keeping it synchronized. This is the classic case in which you would typically want to scale up as far as you can (ideally, remaining a single logical instance, with proper clustering), and only when this is not enough, consider partitioning and distribution scale-out. Advances in database technology (such as distributed partitioned views) have made partitioning much easier, although you should do so only if you need to. This is rarely because the database is too big, but more often it is driven by other considerations such as who owns the data, geographic distribution, proximity to the consumers and availability.

Consider Database Partitioning at Design Time

If your application uses a very large database and you anticipate an I/O bottleneck, ensure that you design for database partitioning up front. Moving to a partitioned database later usually results in a significant amount of costly rework and often a complete database redesign.

Partitioning provides several benefits:

  • The ability to restrict queries to a single partition, thereby limiting the resource usage to only a fraction of the data.
  • The ability to engage multiple partitions, thereby getting more parallelism and superior performance because you can have more disks working to retrieve your data.

Be aware that in some situations, multiple partitions may not be appropriate and could have a negative impact. For example, some operations that use multiple disks could be performed more efficiently with concentrated data. So, when you partition, consider the benefits together with alternate approaches.